Sunday, 14 August 2016

Viki Sangre

Steps Taken For Afforestation and Restoration By Govt. - Causes, Goals and Plans

Afforestation has been a serious concern in the past couple of years over the diminishing forest shelter in India. The total geographical area of 640 million hectares in India, forest occupies only 70 million hectares that are only 18 percent.

Recommended forest cover by UNESCO is 34 percent of the geographical area. Govt of Bihar and MP have shown gross negligence where forest lands have been diverted for development projects like establishing hydroelectric projects and heavy industries.

In the re-greening process 4.5 lakh hectare was to be covered by compensatory afforestation, but barely 2.10 lakh hectare has been greened. At present, there has been a several-fold increase in requirement of wood, timber, and pulpwood. Therefore afforestation is necessary to meet the requirements and for other purposes.

There has been a need to involve local communities and the Panchayats in a greening process. The joint forest management system is made more meaningful by giving the local tribes and local forest protectors a share in the wealth of the forest.

A 'van mukhiya' is nominated in each Panchayat and the best Panchayat awarded a cash incentive. There have been links between forestry and related areas like agriculture, horticulture, rural development and animal husbandry.

The 2 major goals of afforestation are:

1) Supply of goods and services to people and industry with a well-thought plan of production.

2) Long-term ecological security, through conservation of forest cover. There is a need for a greater harmony with the
(a) Need of the people
(b) And the need to maintain an ecological balance while increasing the productivity of land water and forest.

Afforestation calls for the need of the place. In the deserts, trees as the windbreaks are planted to check the velocity of the wind.

They check the spread of sand dunes and blowing away of the fertile topsoil. Windbreaks are planted in several rows. Specific plant species acting as windbreaks are Ricinus communis, Zizyphus, Jujube, Acacia Nelotica, Lawsonia Alba etc.

In the northwest, USA and Europe common afforestation trees are Pine, Poplar, Douglas fir, Larches, and Spruce. Pine and Poplar are planted on abandoned land to stop erosion.

The speed and scale of afforestation in China both rank first in the world. Volunteers participating in the national tree planting movement throughout the country have planted over 35 billion trees, with an aerial sowing of 8.68 million hectares. Today the forest coverage rate in China has increased to 16.55 percent.

Some ecologist thinks that afforestation may have the following effects:

  • The tree crowns can trap acid pollutants and salt.
  • Forest evaporate more than uploads and so acid pollutants become concentrated.
  • Planting some kind of trees causes, the soil to dry. This  causes greater oxidation of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the soil Acidic humus prod needles encourages acidity.
  • Acidic humus produced by pine needles encourages increased soil acidity.