Saturday, 9 July 2016

Viki Sangre

Spoilage of Landscape due to Waste Accumulation. Control Measures | Impact and Causes on Terrestrial Life

Landscapes have often been subject to human intervention and pressure which may tend to deflect succession to form a plagioclimax community. This may lead to spoilage of landscape due to waste accumulation. The African savanna was once a forest but was cleared by farmers for agriculture, the soils in these areas were further impoverished by this activity and now the soil can only support grasses and shrubs that are tolerant of drought and fire.

A fact that is important here is the spoilage of soil by waste accumulation which can no more support tree species for a regeneration of forest as a climatic climax community. Misuse or over-utilization of land or improper agriculture and other practices like overgrazing, shifting cultivation, forest exploitation, Intensive agriculture and urbanization have brought environmental degradation and undue pressure on land.

Control measures to save Landscapes from human Spoilage

There is a need for adopting certain control measures on different fronts to ensure sustainability over long period and avoid spoilage of landscapes, they are:

Drainage and erosion

  1. Keep subsurface drainage system Open and operating.
  2. Keep subsurface drainage system free of manure.
  3. Keep water diversion canals bloomed to minimize erosion of landscape soil.

Land Application of manure to reduce Land Spoilage

  1. Prepare an emergency action plan to deal with releases from equipment failure or over an application.
  2. Conduct soil and compost, testing every 2 years to determine nutrient levels (especially for elements like Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium‘(K). Determine the nutrient quantity of manure prior to application.
  3. Calibrate manure application equipment regularly.
  4. Avoid application to highly erodible land except where soil conservation practices are used to control erosion and runoff.
  5. Inject or incorporate manure into soil, if possible, reduce odor or loss of N through ammonia volatilization.
  6. Avoid manure application to saturated, frozen or snow-covered soils.
  7. Avoid applying manure to near highly sensitive areas or near surface water bodies.
  8. Apply manure when the weather is cool to avoid ammonia volatilization.
  9. Do not apply manure within 1000 feet of any occupied residence.
  10. Use low trajectory irrigation guns with large droplet size.
  11. Consider manure irrigation during dry periods so that it would supply water and nutrients.

Need for adopting control measures to check spoilage of landscape erosion. Here are some few examples:-

A landscape undisturbed and virgin with nameri forest and unpolluted nameri river comprising north bank landscape in Assam. It is also a biodiversity hotpots like Brazil and Peru.

A desert landscape in southern Spain in the process of re-greening supported by ecotourism but likely to be spoiled by tourism projects and construction.

Mankind Waste Accumulation - Save Terrestrial Live in Landscape

  • Remove dead animals from buildings and build perimeters daily.
  • Screen dead animals from public view.
  • Provide for pickup of dead animals within 48 hours
  • Do not dispose of dead animals in manure storage or treatment structures.

Impact and Causes of Excess Grazing and Trampling in Natural Landscapes

Avoid excessive grazing that will reduce ground flora and may promote soil erosion and trampling will lead to compaction of soil, reducing soil pores available for integration and may also contribute to erosion.

Moderate grazing can increase species diversity by opening up the community and creating more niches.

Encourage Garden Landscape Planner Design

More herbaceous plants should be allowed to grow because some of them are rare species, and some are important for insects, which in turn are part of the food web of a forest.

Urban expansion monitoring through remote sensing, mapping and monitoring urban population expansion has been necessary to understand city scape planning which has become necessary for all major cities due to mass migration.