Monday, 15 August 2016

Vikramjit Sangre

Temperate Grasslands of the World | Conservation and Management

Grassland flourishes in temperate regions of the world. They are the ‘Prairles' of North America, 'Steppes' in the European region, 'Pampas' in Argentina, ‘Veldt' in South Africa and the ‘Puszta‘ in Hungary.

The vegetation is dominated by grasses, legumes, and composites. In the region of high rainfall, grasses grow to about 2 meters in height. In drier region the grasses are short. The Spanish steppes represent the last significant area of 'steppe' in European council.

The vegetation is represented by a mixture of uncultivated scrub cereal fields, legume fields, grass, pasture stubble, plowed earth, it's a high proportion of bare ground.

Temperate grassland climate, soil, and vegetation

The climate, soils, and vegetation vary widely. Dry areas have dry shrub steppes which are used for livestock grazing. In a less arid area, grassland is used as pasture and dry cereals are cultivated in rotation with fallows. The vegetation is largely a mixture of uncultivated scrub and rough pasture and unirrigated arable fields.

Most common cultivated crops are wheat, barley, oats alfalfa, Chickpea, beans, sunflower, sugarbeets, lentils. Traditional land use of steppes is a mixture of livestock (sheep rearing) and dry cereal farming.

Interesting facts about grasslands

The Prairies of North America produce a huge area of temperate grassland. Within the area, there are regional differences in height of grasses and the soil. However, all prairies grassland consists of a continuous layer of mat forming and tussocky grasses.

Decreased rainfall promotes the growth of a range of different grassland communities. Short grass prairie occurs on chernozem soil (Dark brown humus soil rich in organic content). Grazing of short-prairies grasses is common by animals that produce dairy products, leather, and meat.

Poor land management, including overgrazing and severe drought have led to the removal of the protective grassland mat and a network of water retaining roots and thus exposure of top soil. In 1930's during the era of the American Depression, several families left the area of Colorado. Oklahoma and New Mexico due to topsoil exposure and bareness.

Grassland of Savanna type ecosystem has developed in many regions of India, particularly on the Western Ghats and the west of Eastern Ghats due to the clearing of forests and other destructive human activities.

East of western Ghats has low rainfall and the flora is dominated by grasses with species like Heteropogon, Cymbopogon species.

The Steppes, Prairies, and other grasslands can be conserved taking the following measures.

1) Agricultural intensification and Irrigation should be minimized as to conserve:

(a) semi-natural grasslands.
(b) mosaic of vegetation and species diversity.

2) Stop rural depopulation and land abandonment to prevent loss of diversity of vegetation and soil erosion.

Massive afforestation program by planting trees like Poplar, Eucalyptus to check soil erosion is to be discouraged since it disturbs the natural landscape.) Discourage concentration of land holdings from scattered into the large single unit. It destroys open steppe habitat.
Vikramjit Sangre

How Can Overgrazing Lead To Soil Erosion | How to minimize Overgrazing?

When insufficient amounts of grass litter are left in the soil, the soil organisms die and then the soil loses fertility. If grass cover is sparse, raindrops erode the surface. It is a common practice that leads to desertification.

Conservation Grassland To Check Soil Erosion

Soil erosion threatens our agricultural use throughout the world. Soil can lose ts nutrients and soil biota. It can be damaged by water logging and compaction. Erosion is the visible part of degradation. In dry climates, wind blow is the main cause of erosion.

In Africa, soil erosion and degradation are due to overgrazing, whereas in North America it is due to agriculture. Again in Australia and New Zealand overgrazing is by far the largest contributor of soil erosion.

The devastation of Greece had two causes:

1. Deforestation
2. Overgrazing and over browsing by a multitude of uncontrolled goats who thrived on seedling trees.

North Africa once a granary of the Roman Empire, turned into a grassiness continent due to overgrazing. The major concern is, therefore, to protect our vegetal cover from grazing animals. As long as the processes which forms grasslands continue they are balanced semi-natural communities.

Minimize overgrazing effects on Environment by these practices:

  • Grow more of mat grass which is unpalatable to sheep.
  • Grow more of fine grass which sheep do not prefer to eat. 
  • A ground-hugging cushion grass e.g saxifrages conserve water and reduce exposure. Plant more of saxifrages. 
  • A part of the grassland can be planted with sheep's fescue, a grass species favored by sheep to allow controlled grazing. 
  • Avoid agricultural Intensification and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals in grasslands.
  • Encourage rotation grazing.
  • Extract fodders from wild grass cover.
  • Improved fodder grasses/shrubs/trees to be developed for improving soil moisture. 
  • Villagers should have few, but protective cattle.
Vikramjit Sangre

Methods of Conservation of Forests Resources and Wildlife by Management

Joint Forest management, Afforestation Social Forestry. Public awareness programs concerning water, soil, air forest and other resources.

Public Awareness Program towards Conservation of Forests, Water, Soil, Air and other resources. Many people do not understand the close ties between human and the environment.

There is a need to increase people's sensitivity and involvement in finding a solution for environment and development programs. Education can present people with environmental and ethical awareness, values, attitudes, skills, and behavior needed for conservation of natural resources, water, soil, air, forests etc leading to a sustainable development. We must involve school children and college students in environmental health, safe drinking water, sanitation, food, forests, and wildlife.

We must also set up training programs for industry, universities, non-government organization (N60) and village-level workers to train people in environmental management.

There is also a need for a more active public debate on the environment by working with media, theater group, entertainment, and advertising industries.

The Importance of Forest Conservation

Conserve Ecosystem by encouraging Eco-tourism

It is a novel concept in outdoor education, particularly educating the youths (school and college students) and the tribal people about the sustainable use and conservation of our natural resources.

Eco-tourism is a way to conserve our ecosystems, such as forests, never along with soil and air.

Visits to forests, water bodies, observing the duality of water, listening to the bark of wild animals and songs of the birds in a forest could generate a love and compassion for the natural resources and wildlife around us.

Ecotourism brings in long-term economic stability, develops a sense of belonging to the environment with moral and ethical responsibilities Mini Concerts and Film Shows.

Film Show and Media

Education for the well being of our natural resources, healthy practices, discouraging the abuse of village ponds, and river cleaning of sewage and waste recycling, maintenance of healthy food and safe drinking water, and role of the forest in causing "rain through the water cycle and maintaining climate are some of the components of a wholesome human-environment relationship.

This could be projected at the rural and semi-urban levels through the media of film-shows and local open concerts to generate effective public awareness.

Provide Vocational Skills

Provide vocational skills in honey making, basket-weaving, medicinal herb gathering, sustainable fishing, which in turn provides income to local companies. Women can be drawn into handicrafts making and tourist management.

Village level in Environmental Monitoring

Youths could form a society or environmental club to monitor the abuse of ponds and drinking water bodies, check the outlets of industrial effluents into nearby rivers or“ streams from which they fish or draw water for drinking and reduce the levels of toxic smoke released into the atmosphere.

Vikramjit Sangre

Social Agroforestry Tree Species in India | System Impact Factors and Practices

The objective of social Agroforestry in India is to grow fast growing tree species and to raise plantation which is commercially valuable on all land other than traditional forestry practice available. The trees could provide firewood for the local population, fodder for cattle, pulpwood for the paper industry and act as windbreaks or shelterbelts as in the desert ecosystems.

Social Agroforestry also encourages people's participation on a large scale to create a human interest in preventing the forest from destruction.

Greening Mother Earth every inch and making it productive is the concept of Social Forestry. Social forestry includes plantation on a village, private and government lands roadsides, canal banks and on land unsuitable for agriculture.

It helps create plant resource genetic banks, nurseries and recreation parks. Polyculture (growing more than one tree species in the same land) is now thought of as a best practice.

Bring in native or non-native species of plants that provide not only timber but fodder and soil fertility by nitrogen fixation.

Best Tree Species For Agroforestry Systems And Practices

Some species of plants widely used for plantation through social forestry schemes are Acacia, Teak, Shishams Neem, Cassia Casuarina Eucalyptus, iDelonix, Ficus, Terminalia. Eucalyptus is fast growing and is used for pulp and paper industry. Social forestry aims at increasing the income and economic condition of farmers, hence fast growing trees with good size are chosen. In Goa, 4000 ha of land has been planted under this scheme, since its inception in 1984.

Modified social forestry is called Agroforestry.

The following schemes are being implemented by Forest Department of India under social forestry schemes.

1) Social and Farm Forestry: Plantation has been raised on barren community lands, roadsides. By this 2004 plantation in the 920-hectare area has been raised.

2) Rural Fuelwood and fodder project scheme: Plantation has been raised on barren community lands and temple lands. Central Govt. Shares 50% expenditure initially. By 2004, 4732-hectares plantation has done.

Peoples Nursery: Nursery seedlings are raised through peoples/farmers. One rupee is paid for each seedling to the farmers. 6.00 lakh seedlings went raised through this scheme.

Tourism Department plantation: Social Forestry Division also raises plantation for Tourism Dept. Especially on the beaches and roadside.
Vikramjit Sangre

Agroforestry meaning with proper definition and their advantages

It is a modified version of social forestry. Agroforestry is a system of land use where woody perennials are purposefully used on the same land where annual agricultural crops or animals or both are grown sequentially with the aim of obtaining greater outputs on a sustained basis. This, in fact, an ancient land use practice, where the same land is used for agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry.


The advantages of Agroforestry are:

1. Responds to population pressure.

2. It conserves the environment.

3. It produces-fodder, fuel crops and timber.

4. Use of multipurpose species, generating more employment.

5. Agroforestry can be encouraged to increase productivity of farm plots by using Nitrogen fixing trees.

6. Timber crops can be grown with food and cash crops.

7. In coffee and cocoa plantations, agroforesty is practiced by a multistoried cropping system. Where trees provide shade to cash crops below. Agroforestry, social forestry and community forestry have in common. Every village or town mush be able to meet firewood, fodder and small timber requirements by growing trees/shrubs in the land available in the cooperative system.

Sunday, 14 August 2016

Vikramjit Sangre

Steps Taken For Afforestation and Restoration By Govt. - Causes, Goals and Plans

Afforestation has been a serious concern in the past couple of years over the diminishing forest shelter in India. The total geographical area of 640 million hectares in India, forest occupies only 70 million hectares that are only 18 percent.

Recommended forest cover by UNESCO is 34 percent of the geographical area. Govt of Bihar and MP have shown gross negligence where forest lands have been diverted for development projects like establishing hydroelectric projects and heavy industries.

In the re-greening process 4.5 lakh hectare was to be covered by compensatory afforestation, but barely 2.10 lakh hectare has been greened. At present, there has been a several-fold increase in requirement of wood, timber, and pulpwood. Therefore afforestation is necessary to meet the requirements and for other purposes.

There has been a need to involve local communities and the Panchayats in a greening process. The joint forest management system is made more meaningful by giving the local tribes and local forest protectors a share in the wealth of the forest.

A 'van mukhiya' is nominated in each Panchayat and the best Panchayat awarded a cash incentive. There have been links between forestry and related areas like agriculture, horticulture, rural development and animal husbandry.

The 2 major goals of afforestation are:

1) Supply of goods and services to people and industry with a well-thought plan of production.

2) Long-term ecological security, through conservation of forest cover. There is a need for a greater harmony with the
(a) Need of the people
(b) And the need to maintain an ecological balance while increasing the productivity of land water and forest.

Afforestation calls for the need of the place. In the deserts, trees as the windbreaks are planted to check the velocity of the wind.

They check the spread of sand dunes and blowing away of the fertile topsoil. Windbreaks are planted in several rows. Specific plant species acting as windbreaks are Ricinus communis, Zizyphus, Jujube, Acacia Nelotica, Lawsonia Alba etc.

In the northwest, USA and Europe common afforestation trees are Pine, Poplar, Douglas fir, Larches, and Spruce. Pine and Poplar are planted on abandoned land to stop erosion.

The speed and scale of afforestation in China both rank first in the world. Volunteers participating in the national tree planting movement throughout the country have planted over 35 billion trees, with an aerial sowing of 8.68 million hectares. Today the forest coverage rate in China has increased to 16.55 percent.

Some ecologist thinks that afforestation may have the following effects:

  • The tree crowns can trap acid pollutants and salt.
  • Forest evaporate more than uploads and so acid pollutants become concentrated.
  • Planting some kind of trees causes, the soil to dry. This  causes greater oxidation of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the soil Acidic humus prod needles encourages acidity.
  • Acidic humus produced by pine needles encourages increased soil acidity.
Vikramjit Sangre

Sustainable Timber Management Plans | Forestry Practices

Sustainable Timber Management Plan

  • Yield or timber cut should be confined to set limits.
  • Felling of trees should be orderly and restricted to cutting boundaries.
  • Enough trees should be left for the system to recover.
  • The stand of forest left should be protected.
  • Silvicultural work should be carried out. This will help create better quality timber.
  • Permanent roads should be maintained, post felling erosion to be ‘controlled’.
  • Unworked forest should be protected.